• žDEFINITION
  • žMethod to study
  • žWhy is it essential
  • žAnatomy – anatometo cut up
  • žDissection
  • žEarlier was concerned with identifying and naming, but nowadays, its importance is in its functional approach and clinical applications

Subdivisions

  • žGross/ topographic
  • žMicroscopic/ histology
  • žSurface
  • žComparative
  • žPhysical anthropology
  • žLiving
  • žClinical
  • žRadiological
  • žDevelopmental/ embryology
  • žGenetics
  • žExperimental

žGross anatomy–  regional or systemic

  • žSystemic-
  • Integumentary
  • Skeletal
  • articular
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
  • Cardiovascular
  • Lymphatic
  • Endocrine
  • Digestive
  • Respiratory
  • Reproductive
  • Urinary

History

  • žFather of medicine – Hippocrates
  • žFather of anatomy – Herophilus
  • žFather of modern anatomy- Vesalius
  • žFather of histology – Marcello Malpighi
  • žFather of genetics- Gregor John Mendel
  • žTerm anatomy coined by – Aristotle
  • žFirst to dissect human body- Herophilus
  • žlight microscope by – Robert Hooke
  • žModern light microscope by- Abbe
  • žEmbalming- Egyptians

Terminology

  • žVery precise science because of universally accepted terminology
  • žTerms derived from greek or latin (majority)
  • žSome from german, french and british also
  • žSome refer to plants or animals, some derived from materials used during war
  • žPrefix and suffix
  • žSome from the name of anatomist, surgeons etc.

Positions of body

  • žAnatomical
  • žFundamental
  • žSupine
  • žProne
  • žLithotomy

Anatomical planes

  • Midsagittal/ median
  • Sagittal
  • Coronal/ frontal
  • Transverse/ horizontal
  • Oblique
  • Cardinal
  • Centre of gravity

Anatomical terms

  • žAnterior
  • žPosterior
  • žSuperior
  • žInferior
  • žCentral
  • žPeripheral
  • žMedian
  • žMedial
  • žLateral
  • žInteremediate

Terms for movements

  • Flexion
  • Extension

  • Abduction
  • Adduction

  • Rotation
  • Circumduction
  • Supination
  • Pronation
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Protraction
  • Retraction
  • Elevation
  • Depression

Bony features

  • Foramen
  • Fossa
  • Groove
  • Meatus
  • Sinus
  • Facet
  • Condyle
  • Eminence
  • Line
  • Spine
  • Epicondyle
  • Crest
  • Head
  • Tubercle
  • Tuberosity
  • Trochanter

Blood vessels

  • žArteries
  • žVeins
  • žAnastomosis
  • žEnd artery
  • žSinusoid
  • žCapillaries
  • žVenae comitantes
  • žCollateral circulation
  • žLymph nodes
  • Lymph vessels

Nerves & asso structures

  • žNerves
  • žPlexus
  • žGanglion
  • žNucleus

Fasciae

  • žSuperficial
  • žDeep
  • žRetinaculum
  • žFibrous sheath

Muscles

  • žBelly
  • žTendon
  • žAponeurosis
  • žRaphe
  • žOrigin
  • žInsertion
  • žBursa
  • žAntagonists
  • žPrime movers
  • žSynergists
  • žFixators

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